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白酒和黃酒有哪些區別◕•◕?

來源✘▩:http://www.bccult.com/
日期✘▩:2022-05-31

白酒和黃酒有哪些區別◕•◕?中國的酒主要分黃酒和白酒兩大類₪☁◕☁,白酒是要經過蒸餾裝置和技術提高酒精的含量₪☁◕☁,改善豐富其品味₪☁◕☁,屬於後起的發展☁◕。白酒之根在黃酒₪☁◕☁,故黃酒在中國飲食文化史上據有很高的地位☁◕。(黃酒是相對於白酒◕•、葡萄酒等而言的大名₪☁◕☁,除紹興黃酒以糯米為原料外₪☁◕☁,國內各地生產的許多黃酒也有以粳米◕•、黍米◕•、玉米◕•、小米◕•、小麥等作主要原料₪☁◕☁,經蒸煮◕•、糖化◕•、發酵◕•、壓榨◕•、過濾◕•、貯存◕•、勾兌等工藝生產流程而成₪☁◕☁,不在本文之列☁◕。)

What are the differences between Baijiu and rice wine? Chinese liquor is mainly divided into two categories: yellow rice wine and Baijiu. Baijiu needs distillation equipment and technology to improve the content of alcohol and enrich its taste, which is a new development. The root of Baijiu lies in yellow rice wine, so yellow rice wine has a high position in the history of Chinese food culture. (yellow rice wine is a big name relative to Baijiu, wine, etc. in addition to Shaoxing yellow rice wine, many yellow rice wines produced in China also use japonica rice, millet, corn, millet, wheat, etc. as the main raw materials, which are produced through the process of cooking, saccharification, fermentation, pressing, filtration, storage, blending, etc., and are not included in this article.)
黃酒是我國的民族特產₪☁◕☁,也稱為米酒(ricewine)₪☁◕☁,屬於釀造酒₪☁◕☁,在世界三大釀造酒(黃酒◕•、葡萄酒和啤酒)中佔有重要的一席☁◕。釀酒技術獨樹一幟₪☁◕☁,成為東方釀造界的典型代表和楷模☁◕。其中以浙江紹興黃酒為代表的麥曲稻米酒是黃酒歷史悠久◕•、有代表性的產品;山東即墨老酒是北方粟米黃酒的典型代表;福建龍巖沉缸酒◕•、福建老酒是紅曲稻米黃酒的典型代表☁◕。
Yellow rice wine is a national specialty of China, also known as rice wine. It belongs to brewing wine and plays an important role in the world's three major brewing wines (yellow rice wine, wine and beer). The brewing technology is unique and has become a typical representative and model in the Oriental brewing industry. Among them, maiqu rice wine represented by Shaoxing rice wine in Zhejiang Province is a representative product with a long history of rice wine; Shandong Jimo old wine is a typical representative of corn yellow rice wine in the north; Fujian Longyan chentan liquor and Fujian old liquor are typical representatives of red koji rice wine.
黃酒屬於釀造酒₪☁◕☁,酒度一般為15度左右☁◕。黃酒₪☁◕☁,顧名思義是黃顏色的酒☁◕。所以有的人將黃酒這一名稱翻成“YellowWine”☁◕。其實這並不恰當☁◕。黃酒的顏色並不總是黃色的₪☁◕☁,在古代₪☁◕☁,酒的過濾技術並不成熟之時₪☁◕☁,酒是呈混濁狀態的₪☁◕☁,當時稱為“白酒”或濁酒☁◕。黃酒的顏色就是在現在也有黑色的₪☁◕☁,紅色的₪☁◕☁,所以不能光從字面上來理解☁◕。
Yellow rice wine belongs to brewing wine, and its alcohol content is generally about 15 ℃. Yellow rice wine, as the name suggests, is yellow wine. So some people turn the name of yellow rice wine into "yellowwine". In fact, this is not appropriate. The color of yellow rice wine is not always yellow. In ancient times, when the filtering technology of wine was not mature, the wine was in a turbid state, which was called "Baijiu" or turbid wine at that time. The color of yellow rice wine is now black and red, so it can not be understood literally.
黃酒的實質應是穀物釀成的₪☁◕☁,因可以用“米”代表穀物糧食₪☁◕☁,故稱為“米酒”也是較為恰當的☁◕。現在通行用“RiceWine”表示黃酒☁◕。在當代黃酒是穀物釀造酒的統稱₪☁◕☁,以糧食為原料的釀造酒(不包括蒸餾的燒酒)₪☁◕☁,都可歸於黃酒類☁◕。黃酒雖作為穀物釀造酒的統稱₪☁◕☁,但民間有些地區對本地釀造◕•、且侷限於本地銷售的酒仍保留了一些傳統的稱謂₪☁◕☁,如江西的水酒₪☁◕☁,陝西的稠酒₪☁◕☁,西藏的青稞酒₪☁◕☁,如硬要說它們是黃酒₪☁◕☁,當地人也不一定能接受☁◕。
The essence of yellow rice wine should be made from grain. Because "rice" can be used to represent grain, it is also more appropriate to call it "rice wine". Now "ricewine" is commonly used to represent yellow rice wine. In modern times, yellow rice wine is the general name of grain brewing wine. The brewing wine with grain as raw material (excluding distilled Shaojiu) can be classified as yellow rice wine. Although yellow rice wine is a general term for grain brewing wine, some folk regions still retain some traditional appellations for locally brewed wine that is limited to local sales, such as water wine in Jiangxi, thick wine in Shaanxi, and highland barley wine in Tibet. If they insist that they are yellow rice wine, the local people may not be able to accept them.
在古代₪☁◕☁,“酒”是所有酒的統稱₪☁◕☁,在蒸餾酒尚未出現的歷史時期₪☁◕☁,“酒”就是釀造酒☁◕。蒸餾的燒酒出現後₪☁◕☁,就較為複雜了₪☁◕☁,“酒”這一名稱既是所有酒的統稱₪☁◕☁,在一些場合下₪☁◕☁,也是穀物釀造酒的統稱₪☁◕☁,當時的酒分為三大類✘▩:
In ancient times, "wine" was the general name of all wine. In the historical period when distilled wine did not appear, "wine" was brewing wine. After the emergence of distilled Shaojiu, it became more complicated. The name "jiu" is not only the general name of all wines, but also the general name of grain brewing wines on some occasions. At that time, wines were divided into three categories:
酒◕•、燒酒◕•、葡萄酒☁◕。其中的“酒”這一節₪☁◕☁,都是穀物釀造酒₪☁◕☁,由於酒既是所有酒的統稱₪☁◕☁,又是穀物釀造酒的統稱₪☁◕☁,畢竟還應有一個只包括穀物釀造酒的統稱☁◕。因此₪☁◕☁,黃酒作為穀物釀造酒的專用名稱的出現不是偶然的☁◕。
Wine, Shaojiu, wine. The "wine" section is all about grain brewing wine. Since wine is not only the general name of all wines, but also the general name of grain brewing wine, after all, there should be a general name that only includes grain brewing wine. Therefore, the emergence of yellow rice wine as a special name for grain brewing wine is not accidental.
“黃酒”₪☁◕☁,在明代可能是專門指釀造時間較長◕•、顏色較深的米酒₪☁◕☁,與“白酒”相區別₪☁◕☁,明代的“白酒”並不是現在的蒸餾燒酒₪☁◕☁,如明代有“三白酒”₪☁◕☁,是用白米◕•、白曲和白水釀造而成的◕•、釀造時間較短的酒₪☁◕☁,酒色混濁₪☁◕☁,呈白色☁◕。酒的黃色(或棕黃色等深色)的形成₪☁◕☁,主要是在煮酒或貯藏過程中₪☁◕☁,酒中的糖份與氨基酸形成美拉德反應₪☁◕☁,產生色素☁◕。也有的是加入焦糖製成的色素(稱“糖色”)加深其顏色☁◕。
"Yellow rice wine" in the Ming Dynasty may specifically refer to rice wine with long brewing time and dark color, which is different from "Baijiu". The "Baijiu" in the Ming Dynasty is not the current distilled liquor. For example, there are "three Baijiu" in the Ming Dynasty, which are brewed from white rice, white koji and white water for a short time. The wine color is turbid and white. The yellow color (or dark color such as brownish yellow) of wine is mainly formed by Maillard reaction between sugar and amino acids in wine during cooking or storage, resulting in pigment. There are also some pigments made of caramel (called "sugar color") to deepen its color.
在明代戴羲所編輯的《養余月令》卷十一中則有:“凡黃酒白酒₪☁◕☁,少入燒酒₪☁◕☁,則經宿不酸”☁◕。從這一提法可明顯看出黃酒◕•、白酒和燒酒之間的區別₪☁◕☁,黃酒是指釀造時間較長的老酒₪☁◕☁,白酒則是指釀造時間較短的米酒(一般用白曲₪☁◕☁,即米曲作糖化發酵劑)☁◕。在明代₪☁◕☁,黃酒這一名稱的專一性還不是很嚴格₪☁◕☁,雖然不能包含所有的穀物釀造酒₪☁◕☁,但起碼南方各地釀酒規模較大的₪☁◕☁,在釀造過程中經過加色處理的酒都可以包括進去☁◕。
In the 11th volume of the order for raising the remaining months edited by Dai Xi in the Ming Dynasty, there is a saying: "if you don't use yellow rice wine or Baijiu, if you don't use Shaojiu, it won't be sour.". From this formulation, we can clearly see the difference between yellow rice wine, Baijiu and Shaojiu. Yellow rice wine refers to old wine with a long brewing time, while Baijiu refers to rice wine with a short brewing time (white koji is generally used, that is, rice koji is used as saccharifying and fermenting agent). In the Ming Dynasty, the specificity of the name yellow rice wine was not very strict. Although it could not include all grain brewing wines, at least the large-scale wine brewing in southern China could include the wine that had been colored in the brewing process.
到了清代₪☁◕☁,各地的釀造酒的生產雖然儲存₪☁◕☁,但紹興的老酒◕•、加飯酒風靡全國₪☁◕☁,這種行銷全國的酒₪☁◕☁,質量高₪☁◕☁,顏色一般是較深的₪☁◕☁,可能與“黃酒”這一名稱的確立有一定的關係☁◕。因為清朝皇帝對紹興酒有特殊的愛好☁◕。清代時已有所謂“禁燒酒而不禁黃酒”的說法☁◕。到了民國時期₪☁◕☁,黃酒作為穀物釀造酒的統稱已基本確定下來☁◕。黃酒歸屬於土酒類(國產酒稱為土酒₪☁◕☁,以示與舶來品的洋酒相對應)☁◕。
In the Qing Dynasty, although the production of brewed wine in various places was preserved, Shaoxing old wine and Jiafan wine were popular all over the country. This kind of wine sold all over the country has high quality and dark color, which may be related to the establishment of the name "yellow rice wine". Because the Qing emperor had a special interest in Shaoxing wine. In the Qing Dynasty, there was a saying that "cooking wine was forbidden and rice wine was forbidden". In the period of the Republic of China, yellow rice wine as a general term of grain brewing wine has been basically determined. Yellow rice wine belongs to local wine (domestic wine is called local wine to show that it corresponds to imported foreign wine).

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